Technical SEO Basics: Robots and Indexing

Digital Marketing » Search Engine Optimization » Technical SEO Basics: Robots and Indexing

The realm of search engine optimization (SEO) is constantly evolving and adapting to new technologies and methods of indexing, but technical optimization remains a crucial element for ensuring that search engine crawlers can access, index, and rank your website effectively. The term ‘technical SEO’ encompasses a handful of factors like a website’s architecture, website accessibility, page speed, mobile adaptability, and much more. 

In this post, we will discuss the importance of robots.txt files and indexing as a part of technical SEO and provide actionable tips on how to optimize your website to improve visibility among search engine results pages (SERPs). 

What are Robots and Indexing?

A robots.txt file is a basic text file that communicates with search engine crawlers, which are also sometimes referred to as spiders or bots. When a search engine crawler comes across a website it wants to index, the robot.txt file provides instructions on how to index the site. This simple .txt file can be a powerful tool for webmasters when leveraged effectively. 

Indexing, on the other hand, refers to the process of adding web pages to a search engine’s database (otherwise known as an “index”), making them available for display on search engine result pages when users search for certain relevant keywords. When a crawler indexes a website’s pages, search engines can analyze the content on the sites and rank them based on relevance, quality, and other attributes. 

Proper indexing is vital for SEO initiatives because it allows search engines to “understand” a website’s content which can help determine its relevance and quality as it relates to users’ search queries. If a website’s pages are not adequately indexed, they may not appear on SERPs for relevant keywords, which leads to lower traffic and website visibility. 

Your website could house some of the best content available on the Internet, but if search engine crawlers aren’t able to index your website’s pages easily and accurately, it won’t bring in a lot of traffic. 

How Robots.txt and Indexing Impact SEO

Robots.txt files and indexing can play a significant role in search engine optimization efforts by helping search engine crawlers understand and index websites more effectively. By optimizing robots.txt files, webmasters can ensure that search engine crawlers have access to index the most relevant and high-quality pages of a website while excluding lower-quality pages or pages that aren’t as relevant. Webmasters can easily achieve this by blocking certain pages or entire directories with a disallow directive embedded in the robots.txt file. 

Optimizing a website for indexing requires ensuring that search engine crawlers can properly discover and analyze the content on the website, which can yield improved rankings for relevant keywords and increased visibility on search engine results pages. There are a number of ways to optimize a website for indexing, like creating high-quality, relevant content, utilizing descriptive and unique meta tags and titles, ensuring proper website architecture and navigability, and more. 

Some common mistakes to avoid when optimizing your robots.txt file(s) and indexing include blocking important pages, using incorrect syntax in the robots.txt file, and content duplication. Webmasters must regularly monitor and audit the robots.txt file to ensure that search engine crawlers can accurately and effectively index a website’s content. 

Best Practices for Robots.txt and Indexing

When the robots.txt file is placed within the root directory of a website and contains syntactically correct instructions, it can provide search engine crawlers with a number of directives. For instance, robots.txt files can include the “disallow” directive followed by the specific URL path to block crawlers from accessing certain areas of the website. 

One of the most important things in terms of best practices is ensuring that the robots.txt file is placed in the root directory of the website, as that is the first location search engine crawlers will look to find it. Robots.txt files can also provide directives related to how long crawlers must wait before accessing and indexing the next page of the website, which is especially useful in situations where it’s important to reduce server load on high-traffic pages. 

For indexing best practices, it’s quite beneficial to create a sitemap that comprehensively understands the structure and/or hierarchy of the website, which enables crawlers to index the site’s pages more efficiently. Crawlers also have an easier time indexing properly with faster websites, more descriptive URLs, and by using header tags and publishing quality, relevant content. 

Advanced Techniques for Robots.txt and Indexing

In the previous section, we discussed some of the best practices for robots.txt files and site indexing, and in this section, we’ll dive a little deeper into some of the things webmasters can accomplish with robots.txt files as it relates to SEO. Here are some advanced techniques for indexing and utilizing a robots.txt file effectively:

  • Try to minimize the use of the “disallow” directive – When blocking crawlers from accessing too many pages on a website, it inhibits the crawlers’ ability to index properly, which can negatively affect the site’s visibility on search engine results pages. 
  • Utilize specific user-agent directives – Webmasters can also use user-agent directives followed by the name of a specific crawler (Googlebot, Bingbot, Baidu Spider, etc.) 
  • Frequently test your robots.txt file – It’s vitally important to keep your robots.txt file up-to-date as the website changes. Regular testing can help the webmaster identify any errors in the file and enable search engine crawlers to access the most recent and relevant information on the site. 


To summarize, the robots.txt file is an invaluable tool for website owners looking to improve search engine crawling and indexing. By effectively leveraging directives within the file, webmasters can ensure that search engine crawlers can access only the pages they want to be indexed while simultaneously managing server load times and improving website visibility in search results. This allows website owners to optimize their site for search engine crawlers and ultimately improve the site’s overall SEO.

If you haven’t already, there’s no time like the present to create and optimize your robots.txt file to improve your website’s ranking on search engine results pages.

About The Author

Matthew Post

Matthew Post

Matthew Post has dedicated over two decades to building and optimizing websites. He has worked in-house for nationwide e-commerce companies and large local firms to increase customer engagement through conversion rate optimization and search engine optimization. His expertise covers both the development and growth of digital properties.